Neil Burton - bio

Neil Burton, the compiler of the materials that now go into the construction of this website, lived in China and Japan from 1973 until 1998. His principal “culture shock” occurred upon his return to Canada. He thinks he now understands the children’s story of Rip Van Winkle.

He’s never been quite certain what initially got him fascinated with China, but he does remember that the interest dates back to childhood. Was it the “Chinaman” grocer that came along the street in an old modified Ford truck to bring fresh vegetables from the truck gardens on the outskirts of Vancouver to the busy housewives along his routes? Was it the small boxes of candied ginger he handed out to all his customers every Christmas? Was it the interest in the third Chinese child, Elizabeth Ko, he had ever seen in Gilmore Avenue Primary School? Or was it something in the encyclopedic collections, his family—all teachers—had on their bookshelves (including a many-volumed, moroccan-leather bound, encyclopedia with a title that included, if he remembers correctly, the term “civilizations”)?

Burton’s first long love affair was with photography; it began in early middle school years, lasted through his first year at the University of British Columbia (UBC), and persisted for several years beyond. At UBC in that first year he spent more time taking pictures for the student newspaper “The Ubyssey” than he did in classrooms. It was 1958, the Soviets had lofted “Sputnik” the year before, and students were somehow led to believe that sciences should be our priority if we had any aptitude for them. Burton’s course lineup included the mandatory English, a single mandatory second language—in his case Scientific Russian—mathematics, chemistry and physics. Passing these courses (mathematics only barely by taking a summer make-up course), and possibly wondering why international events should determine his choice of careers, he dropped out of university to further indulge his photographic passion. Five years later he was back at UBC, taking Asian Studies 205, an “Introduction to East Asia”, and first-year Chinese. (Why?) (He ultimately became a Teaching Assistant in the 205 course. He was interested, money was scarce as he had a young family, and the income from a weekend job in a camera store wasn’t sufficient to keep things going.)

The most interesting thing that happened to Burton in Asian Studies 205, when he himself took it, was the presentation by a “Chinese” guest lecturer, newly arrived from the People’s Republic after some ten to fifteen years. (Burton much later found out that the “Chinese” lecturer had been born in Vancouver and spent part of his formative years in Vernon, British Columbia, where his father was the first Chinese priest in the Anglican Church of Canada.) That man, Lin Daguang/Prof. Paul Lin became through sheer chance Burton’s mentor and career benefactor for life. His death several years ago was devastating, but Burton has since had the comforting pleasure of getting reacquainted with his widow Eileen.

Politically hounded out of UBC, Paul went East to Montreal to found the first Asian Studies Department at McGill University. He was deeply involved in Canada’s recognition of the PRC, and is now known to have held secret talks with a confidant of Henry Kissinger -- a Dr. Winter -- about the likely reaction by China to a potential USA recognition of the PRC. After retirement from McGill, he served as Rector of the University of Macau, and later ended up back in Vancouver on the UBC Senate!

Getting back now to the time of that “interesting” guest lecture: Several days later, Burton got a telephone call from his father: “Neil, I thought of you when my old UBC schoolmate Moore Whaun ‘phoned to say there’s a person newly arrived from China that he’d like me and your mother to meet. We’ve invited Moore, his wife Diamond, and his guest for dinner on Saturday. Care to join us?” Burton went and the unknown guest turned out to be Paul Lin. The rest, as the saying goes, is history.

After following Prof. Lin to McGill several years later, with his help all along the way, Burton personally organized the first all-Canada student tour of China in 1973, again fully supported by Prof. Lin through his Chinese connections. (In 1967-8 Burton had been hired by the Student Christian Movement of Canada to lead a young people’s group to Japan for a joint Canadian-Japanese seminar on China’s ongoing Cultural Revolution. A couple of years later, in 1970–71, he was hired as the assistant to the organizer and leader of the first all-Canadian academics group to visit China, Prof. Ken Woodsworth, head of UBC’s Continuing Legal Education Dept.)

Towards the end of the 1973 student tour, Burton received a telegram from Prof. Lin informing him that he had been chosen to be a member of the first official Canada-China student exchange program, and so Burton, now in his second marriage, had better start thinking about the problem of being away from his wife for up to two years. Burton was torn, but the decision was to go for it (which he did in October), while his wife worked with the Chinese Embassy in Ottawa to find a teaching job in Beijing so as to rejoin her husband. As it turned out, a job was found for Burton’s wife Ayako, and she eventually arrived in April, two weeks before their first child was born in Beijing’s Capital Hospital (Shoudu Yiyuan, originally built with Rockefeller money). The by-then-elderly Dr. Lin Qiaozhi, China’s most famous woman doctor and obstetrician, supervised the birth.

Two years later a second daughter was born to the Burton-Shinomiya family. Burton’s stint as an exchange student was drawing to a close, decisions had to be made. With wife working in a job she enjoyed, and two children being looked after by caring people at absolutely no cost to the Burtons, the decision wasn’t hard to reach. Burton would find a job—with the help of Lin Daguang, of course. He was formally assigned by the “Foreign Experts Bureau”, tasked with employing the handful of foreigners living in China, to Beijing Radio as an English-language polisher. Hence he was present in September 1976, when a Politburo heads-up arrived at the station to be prepared for the announcement of Mao’s death; he still has the cassette he recorded on his desktop Sony of the initial announcement itself accompanied by China’s funeral dirge, and the background wailing of the Radio’s Chinese staffers.

Not long after that, and presumably somehow related to his abilities in written Chinese, Burton was transferred to the Central Translation Bureau (in those days the full name was “The Central Bureau for the Translation of the Works of Marx, Engels, Lenin, Stalin and Mao Zedong”—a mouthful whether in Chinese or English, and so generally emerged only when printed on paper. In fact, the Bureau also translated UN documents and key pieces of Chinese legislation. Burton participated, sometimes peripherally in translation, but mostly as a “polisher” of, among other things, the new Code of Criminal Procedure.

During his last year in China (1981), Burton taught a course at the School of Journalism under the newly formed Chinese Academy of Social Sciences. The class was made up of bright young students who were enthusiastic to be back at school, could read English well, but, lacking in exposure to the outside world and Anglo-American culture, couldn’t make head nor tale of much of he content of Time or Newsweek articles to which they now had access (“I know that stock markets are evil, but how do they actually work?”.)

In 1981, Burton was offered a summer teaching job at Sophia University's English-language campus in Tokyo, and a research fellowship at Keio University. He taught there for the rest of his 17 years in Japan, but also served as an English-language editor/polisher for the Japan External Trade Organization [JETRO]'s publication China Newsletter.

For fourteen years Burton also personally compiled a database indexing BBC Monitoring's daily reports on China [Summary of World Broadcasts, Pt. 3, Asia–Pacific], a previously non-indexed compilation placed on the desks of need-to-know bureaucrats in Whitehall every morning. Like the CIA’s Foreign Broadcasts Information Service [FBIS] daily monitoring reports, it was then sold to whomever cared to buy it and could afford it, in order to recover some of the costs of operation. Without an index, however, the bulk of it made it all but useless to academics, as well as to Burton, whose motive for paying BBC Monitoring for its version—less strategically oriented than FBIS, perhaps reflecting Britain’s longstanding connections with China—was to provide students in the PRC-related course with a weekly printout about what went on “yesterday” in China that related to the topics then being discussed in class. A couple of years after he started indexing for his own purposes, he realized that he had a marketable item at hand, advertised it, and soon had a clientele for his monthly printed version of 30 pages or so and including hundreds of items. The subscribers included a number of embassies in Beijing, the Beijing bureaus of some well-known newspapers (NYT, The Los Angeles Times, The Christian Science Monitor), many major China-research universities (Harvard, Australian National, etc., University of Hong Kong, etc., etc.), and BBC Monitoring itself. He ceased publication after eight years when BBC Monitoring finally put the whole thing on line, making it eminently searchable from then on.

backIn closing, Neil Burton would like to pay special tribute to the technological skills, dedication, and indeed enthusiasm, of his good friend Brian Smallshaw, without whose constant work and encouragement this website would never have seen the light of day in its present form.

Neil Burton教授是本网站之父。他曾在中国和日本居住了26年之久(1973-1998),以至于最后他回到加拿大的时候甚至感受到了人生中第一次的“文化冲击”。这一切就仿佛瑞普·范·温克尔的童话故事一般(《瑞普·范·温克尔》是19世纪美国小说家华盛顿·欧文所写的短篇小说,意指“晚于时代的人”)。

时至今日,Burton教授仍然不甚明了究竟为何对中国如此着迷,只能试图在幼时的美好记忆里找寻一点线索:是那些每日清晨用改装的福特卡车将新鲜的蔬菜从温哥华郊区菜园输送给沿路上的家庭主妇们的勤劳的中国人?还是在圣诞节时,那一箱箱来自中国菜农的代表节日问候的糖姜?或是Elizabeth Ko,他在Gilmore Avenue小学看到的第三代中国孩子?抑或是那些收藏在父辈和老师书架上的关于中国的书籍,尤其是那套用摩洛哥皮革包裹着的名为“……的文明……”的百科全书?或许兼而有之吧。

Burton教授生平的第一个爱好是摄影,从初中开始,一直持续了许多年。记得在UBC的第一年,他花在为学生报纸“The Ubyssey”摄影的时间远远多于他花在课堂上的时间。那年是1958年,苏联发射第一颗人造卫星的一年后。那时同学们都认为科学应该是最崇高的追求,Burton教授自然也不例外。在他的课程表上,除了必修的英语课和的二外(科学俄语)之外,其他都是数学,化学和物理之类。然而,在不怎么容易地通过这些考试后(尤其是数学,补考才过),Burton教授开始怀疑为什么如苏联发射卫星这般的国际事件会影响他个人的人生轨迹?于是他便从UBC辍学,并寄情于他所钟爱的摄影,希望能找到答案。5年后,面对在影楼打工的收入不足以支持自己所成立的年轻家庭的现实,他再度回到了UBC的课堂上,不过这次他选择了自己喜爱的“亚洲研究205”—“亚洲研究入门”,和“初级中文”。之后,他还成为了“亚洲研究205”课程的助教。这些都是后话了。

但是对于Burton教授而言,在“亚洲研究205”课程中发生的最有意义的事便是结交了林达光教授,他的贵人。林教授对于Burton教授而言可谓是一生的良师益友。前些年林教授去世时,Burton教授如丧考妣,直到他找到了林教授的遗孀Eileen女士,才算是有所慰藉。

林达光教授出生于温哥华,幼年居住在卑斯省的弗农市,他的父亲是加拿大圣公会第一位华人神父。他赴美求学后回到新中国工作,曾任新闻总署国际新闻局编辑、中央广播事业局英语广播艺术指导、福建华侨大学教授等等。在中国待了15年后,林教授回到加拿大,加入了当时的UBC亚洲研究所,任“亚洲研究入门”课程的客座教授。而后因为政治原因,林教授出走蒙特利尔,并在McGill大学创建了加拿大第一个亚太研究系,后来Burton教授也跟随而往。林教授一生为中加两国建交做出了不可磨灭的贡献。他还曾与基辛格的心腹就中华民国对于新中国与美国建交的反应展开一系列密谈。从McGill大学退休后,林达光教授受聘担任澳门东亚大学(现澳门大学)的校长。从澳门东亚大学卸任后,林教授回到温哥华,还戏剧性以当选UBC参议院参议员方式回到了UBC。

Burton教授和林达光教授虽然在亚洲研究205课程上相识,但两人的相知却是拜Burton教授父亲在机缘巧合之下的安排所赐。在课堂上领略了林教授的风采的几天之后,Burton教授意外地接到来自父亲的电话,被告知父亲在UBC的同窗好友Moore Whaun意欲向他们引荐一位来自中国的朋友。当大家最终在饭桌上相聚时,Burton教授发现原来这位中国朋友便是在205课程上所领略的林达光教授。从那时起,两人便结下了不解之缘。

在1967-1968年间,Burton教授受雇于加拿大学生基督徒联盟,带领一个青年团赴日本参与中加联合研讨会,研究当时正在中国发生的文化大革命;1970-1971年间,Burton教授全程参与、联络、组织了加拿大第一个赴中国的学术访问团,并担任访问团团长(UBC律师继续教育中心Ken Woodsworth教授)的个人助理;1973年,Burton教授更是独立地组织了加拿大第一个赴中国的学生访问团。而这一切的一切都离不开林教授和林教授在中国的朋友们的大力协助和支持。

在1973年加拿大学生访华团即将回加之际,Burton教授接到了一封来自林教授的电报,告知Burton教授入选了第一次由中加双方官方组织的学生交流项目。当时Burton教授觉得左右为难:一方面历史的机遇垂青自己甚是难得,另一方面要离开怀有身孕的妻子两年之久又何尝不是一种煎熬?但心里有一个声音明确地告诉他:一定要去!最终,Burton教授排除万难,在1973年10月正式成为第一批从加拿大赴中国的交换生。而后,他的妻子Ayako Shinomiya也与次年4月顺利通过中国驻加拿大使领馆在中国找到一份工作,并来到了中国。2个月后,在中国团聚的Burton夫妇,在北京首都医院,在当时中国最有名的妇产科医生Lin Qiaozhi的帮助下,迎来了他们第一个孩子的降生。

两年后,随着Burton家庭的第二个孩子的到来,Burton教授的交换生生涯也将告一段落。新中国的美好新生活等待着他们:妻子正孜孜不倦地享受着她在北京的工作;孩子们在保姆们的精心照料下茁壮成长;而Burton教授,也在林教授的帮助下,经由中国国家外国专家局分配到北京广播电台,为英文广播稿修改润色。Burton教授依然记得,在1976年9月9日,一位中共中央政治局智囊匆匆来到北京广播电台,向全国播报伟大领袖毛泽东逝世的消息:沉痛的悼词,凄婉的哀乐,伴随着广播台工作人员,和全国人民的嘤嘤泣涕……Burton教授至今仍保存在当时的原声磁带,记录着那历史性的时刻。

随后,鉴于Burton教授出色的中文写作能力,他被调入中央编译局,负责相关文献资料翻译稿的修缮润色工作。当时的中央编译局全称为“中央马克思恩格斯列宁斯大林毛泽东著作编译局”,主要负责马克思恩格斯列宁斯大林毛泽东等著作的中英文翻译和出版发行。事实上,编译局也负责联合国文件和中国重要法律法规的翻译工作。Burton教授当时就有幸参与翻译了1979年颁布的中华人民共和国刑事诉讼法。

在1981年,也就是Burton教授在中国的最后一年,他在新成立的中国社会科学院新闻研究所教授一门课程。求知若渴的青年学生们给Burton教授留下了深刻的印象:他们能很好地阅读Burton教授所提供的《时代周刊》和《新闻周刊》中的英文文章,却因为长期生活在封闭的环境中而无法领会其中的英美文化,往往只能望文生义。就好像他们只知道股票市场是罪恶的,却不知道股票市场究竟如何运作。Burton教授为他们打开了通向外面世界的一扇窗。

随后,Burton教授在日本上智大学在东京的英语教学校区获得了一份暑期教职,并应邀成为庆应义塾大学的研究员。之后的17年,Burton教授一直在上智大学任教,并同时在由日本贸易振兴会主办的“中国简报”英文版中担任编辑。

在日期间,Burton教授个人还花费了近14年时间编撰了BBC国际媒体部每日中国报道(主要基于BBC世界要闻第3版—亚太新闻)的索引数据库。这份来自BBC的报道向来是英国政府幕僚的必读之物,但却从未曾建立起相应的数据库和索引目录。大概像美国中央情报局的外国信息收集与报道部门一样,BBC国际媒体部也已经私有化以实现市场化运营。然而,没有索引目录和数据库的资料,对于如Burton教授的学者们,是很难为其所用的。

这件事情一定程度上可以折射出英国一直以来对华关系的策略:总是不如美国那般有战略构想。就像在英国的课堂上,研究中国的学生们总是只能通过新闻周报了解和讨论“昨天”在中国发生了什么。

Burton教授自己整理这些数据两年后,越发意识到这些数据索引的价值,于是便通过商业化的渠道将其公之于众。不久便有人闻讯而来,向Burton教授购买每月更新的数据库。随后,订购者纷至沓来,包括了几个国家驻北京的大使,一些世界主要报纸的驻北京办事处(譬如纽约时报,洛杉矶时报,以及基督教科学箴言报等等),还有许多研究中国的学术机构(譬如哈佛大学,澳洲国立大学,香港大学等等)。有意思的是,到最后BBC国际媒体部也反过来向Burton教授订购他所建立的索引数据库。Burton教授坚持这项事业8年有余,直到BBC国际媒体部最终自己将其网络化,并建立起相应的数据库和网络搜索系统。

back_chinese.jpg最后,Burton教授希望向本网站的技术支持,也是他个人的好朋友Brian Smallshaw先生致以特别感谢。没有Brian先生的技术、决心和热情,本网站也难有面向世界的这一天。